Laboratory Equipment: Enhancing Research and Production
The advancement of laboratory equipment has played a crucial role in enhancing research and production capabilities across various scientific domains. This article explores the significant impact that modern laboratory equipment has had on scientific advancements, with a focus on its ability to streamline processes, improve accuracy, and increase efficiency. Through an examination of a hypothetical case study involving a pharmaceutical company’s research department, this article illustrates how state-of-the-art laboratory equipment can revolutionize the way experiments are conducted, leading to breakthrough discoveries and accelerated production timelines.
Laboratory equipment has evolved significantly over the years, enabling researchers to carry out complex experiments more efficiently than ever before. For instance, consider a hypothetical scenario where a pharmaceutical company aims to develop a new drug for cancer treatment. In the past, this process would have been incredibly time-consuming and resource-intensive due to the need for manual experimentation and analysis. However, with the advent of advanced Laboratory Equipment such as high-throughput screening systems and automated liquid handling platforms, scientists can now quickly screen thousands of potential compounds for their anticancer properties. This not only expedites the discovery phase but also allows researchers to allocate more time towards analyzing promising leads and advancing them through preclinical studies.
Analyzer: Streamlining data analysis and providing accurate results
Analyzers play a crucial role in scientific research and production processes by streamlining data analysis and producing highly accurate results. These sophisticated instruments utilize advanced technology to analyze various samples, ranging from biological specimens to chemical compounds. By automating complex analytical procedures, analyzers offer researchers and professionals the ability to obtain precise measurements efficiently.
To illustrate the impact of analyzers, let us consider a hypothetical case study in a pharmaceutical laboratory. A team of scientists is conducting a drug discovery project, aiming to develop a new medication for a specific disease. In this scenario, an analyzer would enable them to evaluate thousands of potential drug candidates quickly and accurately. This expedited process not only saves time but also enhances productivity, allowing researchers to focus on other critical aspects of their work.
The benefits offered by analyzers extend beyond efficiency gains. Here are some key advantages that make these instruments indispensable in laboratories:
- Improved accuracy: Analyzers employ high-performance algorithms and calibration techniques, ensuring reliable and consistent measurements.
- Enhanced precision: By reducing human error associated with manual analyses, analyzers provide more precise data points, enabling researchers to draw meaningful conclusions.
- Increased throughput: With the capability to process large volumes of samples simultaneously or sequentially, analyzers significantly increase workflow efficiency.
- Data management capabilities: Modern analyzers often come equipped with integrated software systems that can store and manage vast amounts of experimental data securely.
Furthermore, it is important to highlight how analyzers enhance collaboration among multidisciplinary teams within laboratory settings. The availability of standardized protocols embedded in the instrument’s software ensures consistency across experiments conducted by different researchers or departments. Consequently, this fosters seamless information exchange while minimizing discrepancies arising from variations in individual methodologies.
As we transition into discussing centrifuges in the subsequent section about “Centrifuge: Separating substances quickly and efficiently”, it becomes evident that both analyzers and centrifuges are vital laboratory equipment that complement each other in research and production processes.
Centrifuge: Separating substances quickly and efficiently
Analyzers are essential laboratory equipment that play a crucial role in streamlining the process of data analysis while ensuring accurate results. By automating various steps, analyzers minimize human error and significantly enhance research and production capabilities. For instance, consider a hypothetical scenario where a pharmaceutical company is developing a new drug compound. The analyzer efficiently processes large volumes of experimental data, enabling researchers to identify patterns and trends effectively.
To further emphasize the importance of analyzers, let us explore some key benefits they offer:
- Increased Efficiency: Analyzers automate repetitive tasks such as sample preparation, measurement, and calculation. This not only saves time but also allows researchers to focus on more complex aspects of their work.
- Enhanced Accuracy: By reducing human involvement, analyzers mitigate the risk of errors caused by fatigue or inconsistency. They provide precise measurements and reliable results consistently.
- Data Management: Analyzers often come equipped with advanced software that facilitates efficient data management. Researchers can easily track, organize, and analyze vast amounts of information conveniently.
- Standardization: Using an analyzer ensures standardized protocols throughout experiments. This uniformity improves reproducibility across different studies or laboratories.
Let’s highlight these advantages in a table format:
|Increased Efficiency||Automates repetitive tasks|
|Enhanced Accuracy||Reduces human error|
|Data Management||Facilitates efficient organization|
In summary, analyzers have revolutionized the way scientific research is conducted by improving efficiency and accuracy while facilitating effective data management. With these invaluable tools at their disposal, scientists can delve deeper into their research without being burdened by laborious manual procedures.
Microscope: Enabling detailed examination of samples at a cellular level
In the field of scientific research, it is crucial to have reliable laboratory equipment that can provide optimal conditions for various experiments. One such essential piece of equipment is the incubator. By maintaining specific temperature, humidity, and atmospheric conditions, an incubator creates a controlled environment ideal for the growth and cultivation of microorganisms or other biological samples. To illustrate its significance, let us consider a hypothetical case study where researchers are investigating the effects of different temperatures on bacterial growth in a particular species.
The primary function of an incubator is to regulate temperature accurately. In our case study, researchers placed samples containing bacteria in separate incubators set at four different temperatures – 25°C, 30°C, 35°C, and 40°C. By observing bacterial growth over time under these varying conditions, they were able to determine the optimum temperature range required for maximum proliferation. This example highlights how precise temperature control provided by an incubator allows scientists to manipulate independent variables systematically and draw meaningful conclusions from their experiments.
Apart from temperature control, many biological specimens require specific levels of humidity to thrive and grow successfully. An incubator addresses this requirement through integrated humidification systems that maintain consistent moisture within its chamber. Whether cultivating cell cultures or preserving delicate organisms like fungi or algae, accurate humidity management ensures optimal physiological conditions necessary for proper development. The ability to precisely adjust relative humidity inside an incubator enables researchers to investigate diverse phenomena across various fields of biology with confidence.
In addition to controlling temperature and humidity, some experiments demand an altered atmosphere within the incubation chamber. For instance, certain anaerobic bacteria require oxygen-free environments for their growth. Modern incubators offer programmable settings that allow researchers to create tailored atmospheric compositions according to experimental requirements. From adjusting carbon dioxide levels to depleting oxygen concentrations entirely, an incubator’s ability to regulate the atmosphere provides scientists with a versatile tool for studying diverse organisms and their specific environmental needs.
- Peace of mind knowing that experimental conditions remain consistent throughout research.
- Confidence in obtaining accurate and reproducible results due to precise control over variables.
- Enhanced potential for breakthrough discoveries through the creation of optimal growth conditions.
- Time-saving benefits by eliminating the need for constant monitoring and manual adjustments.
|Reliable Results||Ensures consistency in experiments|
|Improved Reproducibility||Increases chances of obtaining similar outcomes|
|Facilitates Breakthroughs||Enables researchers to explore new avenues of discovery|
|Saves Valuable Time||Minimizes laborious manual interventions|
Transition Sentence into the next section:
As we delve further into exploring crucial laboratory equipment, let us now turn our attention to another indispensable instrument: the spectrophotometer. By measuring light absorption, this device allows scientists to determine substance concentrations accurately and analyze various molecular interactions without impeding the ongoing reactions or processes.
Spectrophotometer: Measuring light absorption to determine substance concentrations
Imagine a scenario where scientists are attempting to identify the components present in a mixture of chemicals extracted from a plant. They need a technique that can separate and analyze the various compounds efficiently, allowing them to gain valuable insights into their composition. This is where chromatography comes into play, offering researchers an invaluable tool for separating and studying complex mixtures.
Principle and Application:
Chromatography operates based on the principle of differential migration, utilizing two phases – a stationary phase and a mobile phase. The sample mixture is introduced onto the stationary phase, which could be a solid support or liquid absorbed onto a solid matrix. As the mobile phase flows over or through this stationary phase, individual components within the mixture interact differently with both phases, leading to separation based on their physical properties such as size, polarity, or affinity.
One popular application of chromatography is in forensic analysis. For instance, when examining crime scene evidence like ink stains or drug samples, chromatographic techniques enable investigators to determine the presence of specific substances accurately. By comparing unknown samples with known standards using retention times or characteristic peak patterns obtained from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), analysts can establish connections between different cases or identify potential sources.
- Enhances accuracy and reliability in identifying chemical constituents.
- Enables precise determination of substance concentrations.
- Facilitates research by providing vital information about compound interactions.
- Expedites quality control processes by ensuring purity levels meet standards.
Table: Applications of Chromatography
|Forensics||Analyzing ink stains for document forgery|
|Pharmaceutical||Determining drug potency and impurities|
|Environmental||Monitoring pollutants in water|
|Food Science||Detecting pesticide residues in produce|
a critical tool for creating optimal conditions necessary for the growth of biological cultures.
Incubator: Creating optimal conditions for the growth of biological cultures
Spectrophotometers play a crucial role in determining substance concentrations, but they are just one example of the numerous laboratory equipment that enhance research and production. Another essential tool in scientific laboratories is the incubator, which creates optimal conditions for the growth of biological cultures.
Imagine conducting an experiment to study the effects of temperature on bacterial growth. By utilizing an incubator, researchers can maintain a constant temperature within a controlled environment, ensuring accurate and reliable results. For instance, a hypothetical case study could involve investigating how different temperatures influence the growth rate of E. coli bacteria over a specific time frame. The use of an incubator allows scientists to precisely control the temperature conditions and monitor bacterial proliferation at various settings.
The benefits offered by incubators extend beyond this specific scenario. Here are some key advantages:
- Consistent Temperature: Incubators provide stable temperature control, allowing experiments involving heat-sensitive samples or delicate organisms to proceed without compromising their integrity.
- Contamination Prevention: These devices typically feature HEPA filters that help prevent airborne contaminants from entering the chamber, safeguarding valuable cultures against contamination risks.
- Customization Options: Modern incubators often offer programmable features such as adjustable temperature ranges, humidity control mechanisms, and even lighting options tailored to meet diverse experimental requirements.
- Time Efficiency: By creating ideal growth conditions for microorganisms or cell cultures, incubators expedite research processes by accelerating cell division rates and minimizing unnecessary delays.
To illustrate further how these features contribute to scientific progress and productivity in laboratories worldwide, consider the following table showcasing real-life applications of various types of incubators:
|CO2 Incubator||Cultivating mammalian cells||Maintains pH balance; regulates CO2 levels|
|Shaking Incubator||Growing microbial cultures||Promotes uniform mixing; enhances oxygenation|
|BOD Incubator||Assessing biological oxygen demand||Maintains controlled temperature and minimal light exposure for accurate analysis|
|Peltier-Based Incubator||Conducting enzyme reactions||Offers precise temperature control; minimizes heat dissipation, reducing the risk of thermal denaturation|
The incubator’s role in facilitating research and production extends far beyond typical laboratory experiments. From pharmaceutical development to food safety testing, these devices serve as indispensable tools across various scientific disciplines.
Transitioning into the subsequent section about autoclaves: Autoclaves play a crucial role in sterilizing equipment and ensuring aseptic conditions. By employing high-pressure steam, autoclaves eliminate pathogens, reducing the chances of contamination during experimentation or industrial processes.
Autoclave: Sterilizing equipment and ensuring aseptic conditions
Building on the importance of maintaining aseptic conditions in laboratory settings, another essential piece of equipment that plays a crucial role in scientific research and production is an autoclave. By effectively sterilizing equipment and ensuring a contamination-free environment, autoclaves contribute significantly to the success and accuracy of experiments.
To illustrate the significance of autoclaves, let us consider a hypothetical scenario where researchers are studying bacterial growth patterns under controlled conditions. In this case, it is essential to eliminate any potential sources of contamination that may affect the integrity of the experiment. By utilizing an autoclave, all materials such as glassware, media solutions, and culture plates can be thoroughly sterilized before use, minimizing the risk of unwanted microbial interference. This ensures that accurate results can be obtained without any confounding variables impacting the outcome.
An autoclave achieves sterilization by subjecting items to high-pressure saturated steam for a specific period. The extreme heat generated within creates an environment hostile to microorganisms, effectively killing them off. Autoclaves offer several advantages over other methods of sterilization:
- Rapid process: Autoclaving provides quick turnaround times, allowing researchers to proceed with their work promptly.
- Versatility: Various types of laboratory materials can be safely sterilized using this method.
- Cost-effectiveness: Compared to alternative techniques like dry heat or chemical disinfection, autoclaving offers an economical solution for achieving sterility.
- Reliability: Autoclaves have been extensively tested and proven effective at eliminating contaminants consistently.
|Advantages of Autoclaves|
In conclusion, incorporating an autoclave into laboratory practices is paramount for maintaining sterile environments necessary for precise scientific research. By eradicating potential contaminants from equipment and materials, autoclaves contribute to the accuracy of experimental results.
Moving forward, let us delve into the significance of precision balances in scientific experimentation…
Precision Balance: Measuring precise quantities of substances
In the realm of laboratory research and production, precision is paramount. Accurate measurements are necessary to ensure reliable results and safe experimentation. That’s where the precision balance comes into play. This essential piece of laboratory equipment allows researchers and scientists to precisely measure quantities of various substances with utmost accuracy.
For instance, imagine a pharmaceutical company developing a new medication. The success of this endeavor relies heavily on accurately measuring the active ingredients during formulation. A minor miscalculation could lead to ineffective or potentially harmful products reaching consumers. By utilizing a precision balance, pharmaceutical companies can confidently produce medications that meet strict quality standards and provide optimal therapeutic benefits.
The importance of precision balance in laboratory settings cannot be overstated. Here are some key reasons why this equipment plays such a vital role:
- Reliable Measurements: Precision balances offer high levels of accuracy, allowing researchers to obtain consistent measurement values for their experiments.
- Versatile Functionality: These devices often come equipped with different weighing modes (e.g., grams, milligrams), enabling scientists to handle a wide range of sample sizes effectively.
- Time Efficiency: Thanks to their rapid response time, precision balances streamline the weighing process, saving valuable time in busy laboratories.
- Error Minimization: With built-in error detection features like auto calibration and level indicators, these instruments help minimize human errors associated with manual weighing techniques.
|Reliable Measurements||Consistent data for accurate analysis|
|Versatile Functionality||Efficient handling of diverse sample sizes|
|Time Efficiency||Streamlined workflow and increased productivity|
|Error Minimization||Reduces potential human errors during weighing|
In summary, the precision balance serves as an indispensable tool within laboratory environments by providing accurate measurements crucial for successful research and production efforts. Its versatility, time efficiency, and error-minimizing features make it a reliable companion for scientists across various fields. As we delve further into the realm of laboratory equipment, let us now explore another essential instrument: pipettes, which enable precise delivery of liquid volumes for experiments.
Pipettes: Delivering precise volumes of liquids for experiments
In the previous section, we discussed the importance of precision balances in laboratory research. Now, let us delve into another essential piece of equipment – pipettes.
To illustrate its significance, consider a hypothetical scenario where a pharmaceutical company is conducting experiments to develop a new drug formulation. The researchers need to accurately measure and deliver precise volumes of liquid components for their tests. This is where pipettes come into play.
Pipettes are indispensable tools that allow scientists to precisely transfer liquids in small volumes. Here are some key features and benefits associated with using pipettes:
- Accurate measurements: Pipettes offer high accuracy and repeatability when measuring liquid volumes, ensuring reliable experimental results.
- Versatility: There are different types of pipettes available, such as micropipettes and multichannel pipettes, which cater to various volume ranges and experimental needs.
- Ease of use: With ergonomic designs and intuitive controls, pipetting becomes effortless, reducing the risk of human error during experimentation.
- Time efficiency: By delivering exact volumes directly to the desired location, pipettes save time by eliminating the need for additional transfers or dilutions.
Let’s further explore this topic by considering a comparative analysis between two commonly used types of pipettes – mechanical and electronic:
|Feature||Mechanical Pipette||Electronic Pipette|
|Volume Range||Typically suitable for low-microliter to milliliter range||Offers wider volume range capabilities|
|Precision||High levels of precision achieved through manual control||Enhanced precision due to automated dispensing|
|User Interface||Relies on visual observation for volume setting||Digital display for accurate volume adjustment|
|Repetitive Tasks||May cause fatigue after extended use||Suitable for repetitive tasks due to reduced strain|
As seen from the table, both mechanical and electronic pipettes have their own advantages. The choice between the two ultimately depends on specific experimental requirements and user preferences.
In summary, pipettes are invaluable tools in laboratory research, enabling precise delivery of liquids for experiments. Their accuracy, versatility, ease of use, and time-saving capabilities make them an indispensable asset to scientists across various disciplines. Now let’s move on to the next section where we will explore another essential piece of laboratory equipment – shakers – that play a crucial role in mixing substances thoroughly and consistently.
Shaker: Mixing substances thoroughly and consistently
Pipettes are essential laboratory tools for accurately measuring and transferring liquids, but successful research and production depend on a wide range of equipment. One such device that plays an equally crucial role is the shaker. By thoroughly and consistently mixing substances, the shaker ensures homogeneity and facilitates various chemical reactions. To further explore its significance, let us delve into its functionality, applications, and benefits.
To illustrate the importance of the shaker, consider a hypothetical scenario where researchers aim to develop a new medication by combining multiple compounds. Without proper mixing, achieving uniform distribution would be challenging, potentially leading to inconsistent results or even failure in product development. In this case, utilizing a shaker becomes indispensable as it allows efficient blending of different components at adjustable speeds.
The versatility of the shaker extends beyond pharmaceutical settings; it finds utility across diverse fields such as food science, environmental analysis, and biotechnology. Laboratories specializing in DNA extraction rely on shaking instruments to facilitate cell lysis through mechanical disruption techniques like bead beating. Furthermore, industries involved in fermentation processes heavily depend on shakers for enhancing microbial growth and metabolite production.
The advantages offered by employing a shaker are numerous:
- Time-saving: The automated nature of many modern shake models eliminates manual effort while ensuring consistent performance.
- Reproducibility: Using standardized parameters guarantees reproducibility within experiments or between different batches.
- Scalability: Shakers come in various sizes to accommodate small-scale research projects as well as large-scale industrial productions.
- Wide compatibility: Accommodating various container types (e.g., Erlenmeyer flasks or microplates) enables flexibility based on specific experimental requirements.
In summary, the shaker’s ability to mix substances uniformly makes it an invaluable tool across scientific disciplines. Its inclusion enhances efficiency, accuracy, and reproducibility in both research laboratories and industrial manufacturing facilities. With our understanding now expanded regarding this vital piece of equipment facilitating scientific advancements, we can transition to exploring the role of another indispensable laboratory device: the water bath.
Water Bath: Maintaining constant temperature for various procedures
Section H2: Water Bath – Maintaining Constant Temperature for Various Procedures
To ensure the accuracy and reliability of experimental results, maintaining a constant temperature is crucial in various laboratory procedures. The water bath is a versatile piece of equipment that enables researchers to control and stabilize the temperature of samples or reagents throughout an experiment. By immersing containers into a heated or cooled water bath, scientists can perform tasks such as enzyme reactions, DNA denaturation, cell culture incubation, and more with precision.
For instance, in a molecular biology lab studying protein-protein interactions, researchers often employ immunoprecipitation assays. This technique involves using specific antibodies to isolate target proteins from complex mixtures. To facilitate this process, maintaining a consistent low temperature becomes essential as it prevents any nonspecific binding between unwanted proteins and antibody-conjugated beads.
Benefits of Using Water Baths:
- Precise temperature control: Water baths allow precise regulation of temperatures within narrow ranges (e.g., ±0.1°C). Researchers can set specific temperature values based on their experimental requirements.
- Uniform heat distribution: The circulating water ensures even heating or cooling throughout the bath, preventing localized temperature fluctuations that could affect sample integrity.
- Versatility: Water baths are suitable for various applications involving heating or cooling, including biochemical reactions, microbiology cultures, histological staining processes, and many others.
- Time-efficient operation: With rapid warm-up times and efficient thermal transfer properties, water baths enable researchers to optimize workflow efficiency while minimizing waiting periods.
The use of water baths evokes several emotional responses among researchers due to its invaluable advantages:
- Reliability: Scientists rely on water baths to provide accurate temperatures consistently.
- Confidence: Precise temperature control instills confidence in experimental outcomes.
- Convenience: Versatile usage saves time by accommodating diverse protocols.
- Flexibility: Water baths can be adapted to various laboratory settings, ensuring seamless integration within different research areas.
Emotional Response Table:
|Reliable temperature control||Trust in experimental outcomes|
|Precise and accurate results||Confidence in data analysis|
|Time-saving operation||Increased productivity and efficiency|
|Adaptability to diverse protocols||Ease of use and convenience|
With the fundamental role that water baths play in maintaining precise temperatures during experiments, it is essential to explore another critical piece of equipment used for DNA amplification – the PCR Machine.
PCR Machine: Amplifying DNA sequences for analysis and research
Water baths play a crucial role in maintaining a constant temperature for various procedures in the laboratory. Now, let’s explore another essential piece of equipment that is widely used in research and production: the PCR machine.
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) machine is an invaluable tool in molecular biology laboratories. It allows scientists to amplify specific DNA sequences, enabling further analysis and research. For example, imagine researchers studying genetic mutations associated with cancer. They can use the PCR machine to amplify small amounts of mutated DNA from patient samples, allowing them to study these mutations more closely and potentially develop targeted therapies.
To fully appreciate the significance of the PCR machine, consider the following benefits it offers:
- Efficiency: The PCR machine automates and streamlines the process of DNA amplification, significantly reducing human error and increasing efficiency.
- Sensitivity: With its ability to detect even minute quantities of DNA, the PCR machine enables researchers to work with limited sample sizes or trace amounts present in complex mixtures.
- Versatility: The PCR technique can be adapted for different applications such as diagnostic testing, forensic analysis, paternity testing, and gene expression studies.
- Precision: By utilizing specific primers designed to target particular DNA sequences, the PCR machine ensures accurate amplification results every time.
To illustrate how this technology has revolutionized scientific research, take a look at the table below showcasing some notable achievements made possible through the application of PCR:
|Medical Diagnostics||Rapid detection and identification of pathogens like HIV, tuberculosis|
|Forensic Science||Enhanced capabilities for crime scene investigations|
|Evolutionary Biology||Determination of ancient species’ relationships|
|Genomic Studies||Identification of genes responsible for inherited diseases|
In summary, the PCR machine serves as an indispensable tool in modern laboratories by enabling efficient and precise amplification of DNA sequences. Its wide range of applications and significant contributions to various fields make it an essential asset for researchers worldwide.
Moving on from the PCR machine, let’s now delve into another crucial piece of laboratory equipment: the freezer.
Freezer: Preserving samples at low temperatures for long-term storage
Section H2: Freezer: Preserving samples at low temperatures for long-term storage
Having explored the significance of PCR machines in DNA analysis and research, it is now imperative to discuss another vital laboratory equipment – freezers. These devices play a crucial role in preserving samples at low temperatures, ensuring their longevity and integrity for future use.
Freezers are essential tools in any laboratory setting as they allow researchers to store various biological samples under controlled conditions. For instance, consider the case study of a team working on cancer research. They obtained tumor tissue samples from patients undergoing surgery and needed to preserve them for further analysis. Without an appropriate freezer, these valuable specimens would quickly degrade, rendering them useless for future experiments. By maintaining a constant temperature below freezing point (-20°C or lower), freezers provide a stable environment where delicate biological materials can be stored without compromising their quality.
To fully grasp the importance of freezers in scientific endeavors, here are some key aspects worth considering:
- Longevity: Freezers enable scientists to store samples over extended periods, allowing for longitudinal studies and retrospective analyses.
- Cost-effectiveness: By carefully storing samples with proper labeling and organization, researchers can avoid unnecessary duplication of experiments or sample collection.
- Collaboration: The ability to share frozen samples across different laboratories facilitates collaboration between research teams by providing access to standard references or enabling replication of findings.
- Emergency preparedness: In cases where unforeseen events such as power outages occur, advanced freezers equipped with backup power supply systems ensure that valuable samples remain intact.
The following table showcases how different types of freezers compare based on factors like temperature range, capacity, energy efficiency, and cost:
|Freezer Type||Temperature Range (°C)||Capacity||Energy Efficiency||Cost|
|Upright||-10 to -80||Medium to large||Energy-efficient||High|
|Chest||-20 to -80||Large||Less energy usage||Moderate|
|Ultra-low||-50 to -86||Small to medium||Most energy-saving||Expensive|
|Liquid Nitrogen||Below -150||Small||N/A||Costly|
In summary, freezers are indispensable tools for preserving biological samples in research and production. Their ability to maintain low temperatures over extended periods ensures the longevity and stability of valuable specimens. By considering factors such as longevity, cost-effectiveness, collaboration potential, and emergency preparedness, laboratories can choose the most suitable type of freezer for their specific needs.
Note: Please keep in mind that tables may not be displayed correctly in a plain text format like this one.